Gallegos, Danielle Chinese journal of physiology. Significant statements were then grouped into larger units of information. Some women took formula with them so that they could avoid the inconvenience of breast-feeding in public places. By comparison, we found that the density categories of Chinese women were fattier than those of American women in the older age group, which is not consistent with what has been reported in the literature, in which the proportion of women with extremely dense breasts was the greatest among Asian women in all age ranges. 35 Capsular Contracture Rate After Breast Augmentation with Periareolar Versus Other Two (Inframammary and Transaxillary) Incisions: A Meta-Analysis. It is not an uncivilized thing. But I don’t know where and how to find it. Journal of International Women’s Studies Vol. In our study, most women thought that breast-feeding in public was natural while a few argued that breast-feeding should occur in a private place when recalling their experience of breast-feeding in public places. 2018 Jul 13;6(7):e1723. Zelenko, Oksana A better understanding of mothers’ breast-feeding experiences in public settings is needed, to provide them with assistance and support. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 28 In the Women’s Journal, she encouraged women to train for work in professional jobs and become financially independent. Judd, Ellen R. 1989. They would feed their babies only if there were no other alternatives. Y.-Q.O. From this, a description of women’s experiences and expectation of breast-feeding in public places was written. Hauck, Yvonne L. Patients with a preoperative cup size of AA were 12.316 times more likely to choose the axillary approach relative to the IMF approach compared with those with a B cup (P = 0.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.069-141.923). USA.gov. and Reference Thomson, Ebisch-Burton and Flacking On the one hand, the literature shows that Chinese women experienced rapid progress in terms of gender equality during the Cultural Revolution. Chinese journal of chemistry. Based on the perceptions and meanings assigned by people, qualitative research assumes that truth and facts are subjective. Of course, I think in public places lactation women should use something to cover or hide their breasts. The aim was to reduce the number of categories by collapsing those that were similar or dissimilar into broader higher-order categories. Reference Spurles and Babineau According to UNICEF, the rate of exclusive breast-feeding within the first 6 months in China from 2009 to 2013 was 28 %( Recent articles and events in the news reveal that breast-feeding in public places is not socially accepted. ). Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the participants and staff of the health-care centres for their support. se-control study. The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal operated between 1868 and 1912. "subject": true, Some women were persistent in their breast-feeding practices, but they did not want to expose their body when breast-feeding in public places. Furthermore, some of insulin-sensitizing agents are found to be related to a high incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects. ). They hoped there would be more breast-feeding places in public spaces so that breast-feeding could be more acceptable for both mothers and the public. As a multi-disciplinary international forum for the presentation of feminist scholarship and criticism in the fields of the humanities and the social sciences, AJWS was first published as an annual issue in 1995. A total of twenty-seven participants with varying backgrounds were interviewed. Learn why. – The saying “we should build more lactation rooms” has been said repeatedly for so long time, why I can’t see a lactation room?’. Allison J. Four primary dietary patterns were identified by principal component factor analysis and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, Western food, and salty snacks patterns. Data were collected and analysed simultaneously. Some researchers have focused on public attitudes and opinions about breast-feeding in public places and reported that some people were embarrassed, uncomfortable or even offended when facing women breast-feeding in public places such as a shopping centre, bus or subway. 32 34 Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies ol. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, v14 n4 p799-832 Sum 1989 Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Some women thought it was a great thing to breast-feed infants and they felt happy with this activity. Epub 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2015 Dec 29. In the UK, a mother in an upmarket London hotel was asked by members of the public to cover her breasts with a large serviette when feeding her 12-week-old infant( The official UN meeting and NGO Forum provided opportunities for global interaction by the ACWF and NGOs working on women's … Aesthetic Plast Surg. The Beijing conference was a galvanizing event for the Chinese women's movement and a transformative experience for the All China Women's Federation (ACWF). Reference Su and Ouyang ( Purpose: To compare the childbirth experiences of Chinese women living in varied sociocultural contexts. "languageSwitch": true, doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002566. Procedures were followed to maintain confidentiality and all participants provided written informed consent. ). Since different women had different priorities, they behaved differently when their babies needed to be fed outside the home. After they received preoperative education on incisions, the axillary and periareolar approaches decreased to 117 (54.17%) and 13 (6.02%), respectively, while IMF increased to 86 (39.81%). The respondents were requested to choose one incision location before and after they received the preoperative education. It is well known that breast-feeding, especially exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of an infant’s life, has many short- and long-term benefits for mothers, infants and society( The authors conducted a psychiatric epidemiological study among postpartum Chinese women using rigorous methodology and a representative sample. 17 Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. ). "isUnsiloEnabled": true "Vignettes of Chinese Women in T'ang Xi'an (618‑906): Individualism in Wu Zetian, Yang Guifei, Yu Xuanji and Li Wa," Chinese Culture 31.1:77‑89. Breastfeeding and health outcomes for the mother–infant dyad, ‘The way to break the taboo is to do the taboo thing’, breastfeeding in public and citizen-activism in the UK, Gendered spaces and intimate citizenship, the case of breastfeeding, A qualitative study of infant feeding decisions among low-income women in the Republic of Ireland, Affect, corporeality and the limits of belonging: breastfeeding in public in the contemporary UK. The decline in Chinese women’s hair diameter after reaching its peak in 40s is similar to other studies with Caucasian and Japanese people [10] . 16. "hasAccess": "1", What’s more, I just expose my nipple outside and it was in my baby’s mouth, so others cannot see my breasts.’, ‘At first, I didn’t get used to breast-feeding in public places, so I brought a pacifier. Duration of any breast-feeding ranged from 3 to 15 months. The same situation was reported in other studies( ). 27 A list of significant statements was developed about mothers’ reactions to the situation when their infants required breast-feeding in public. eCollection 2019 Dec. Muresan C, Ford MM, Anderson EW, Lee TJ, Hiller AR, Kachare SD, Wilhelmi BJ. Purpose: To compare the childbirth experiences of Chinese women living in varied sociocultural contexts. To improve this situation, the Chinese government and health professionals should advocate for improving services in public places for breast-feeding women. Chinese journal of dermatology. They hoped that people would be kind and friendly and not say bad words or give weird looks. } 2019 Apr;43(2):328-335. doi: 10.1007/s00266-018-1299-3. ). 2 Sun J, Mu D, Liu C, Xin M, Fu S, Chen L, Liu W, Luan J. Gallagher, Louise  |  22  |  Only three mothers had used lactation rooms in an airport or supermarket. On the one hand, people consider breast-feeding in public as natural and common and should be supported. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between 01st February 2018 - 17th January 2021. "openAccess": "0", Sometimes there were no other choices when infants need to eat, so I breast-fed in public places with cheekiness.’. Some of the mothers agreed that a single room open only for mothers was appropriate and this was the most basic requirement: ‘We don’t need much. D Jiang (2014) Treating Female Infertility by Strengthening the Natural Menstrual Cycle with Acupuncture and Chinese Herbal Medicine. London: Zed Books. Women in ancient China did not enjoy the status, either social or political, afforded to men. More than 1300 Chinese women were enrolled to this study. Reference Rollins, Bhandari and Hajeebhoy Ethics of human subject participation: The Research Ethics Committee of Wuhan University approved the study. Scar Assessment After Breast Augmentation Surgery with Axillary Incision versus Inframammary Fold Incision: Long-Term Follow-Up in Chinese Patients. In all, 120 women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited into three groups: 45 to 50 (youngest group), 51 to 55 (intermediate group), and 56 to 60 years old … 10 Sung JY, Jeong JP, Moon DS, Kim MS, Kim HC, Choi WS, Song KY, Kim HJ, Lim HG, Kim JH. Participants were more worried about social censure reported by social media rather than having actually experienced it. 9 The patients with a low BMI and a small preoperative breast cup size were more likely to choose an axillary incision. I think they might believe that I’m morally deficient.’. I also tried best to find somewhere with nursing rooms or with few people.’, ‘I usually find a corner and turn my face to the wall when breast-feeding in public. "newCiteModal": false, Objective: To assess sexual activity, sexual function, and their correlation with vaginal maturation status among middle-aged Chinese women. The Chinese government has made some efforts to solve this problem. 1, No. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-wd6lz 1 2000 The dramatic changes in China since the Cultural Revolution have had a mixed and inconsistent impact on women’s movement and status in China. 6 Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted. They took measures to make themselves and others around them feel more comfortable. After all, not all people can accept this behaviour …’. Community attitudes toward breastfeeding in public places among Western Australia adults, 1995–2009, Perception and attitudes: breastfeeding in public in New York City, A qualitative study of attitudes toward public breastfeeding among young Canadian men and women, A survey on difficulties and desires of breastfeeding women in Wuhan, China, Father’s role in breastfeeding promotion: lessons from a quasi-experimental trial in China, Effectiveness of a theory-based breastfeeding promotion intervention on exclusive breastfeeding in China: a randomised controlled trial, Shame if you do – shame if you don’t: women’s experiences of infant feeding, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Young mothers who choose to breastfeed: the importance of being part of a supportive breast-feeding community, Non-family support for breastfeeding maintenance among career women in Taiwan: a qualitative study, Attitudes of Chinese adults to breastfeeding in public: a web-based survey, Public beliefs about breastfeeding policies in various settings, Biophysiologic and social stress relationships with breast milk feeding pre- and post-discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, The study of Chinese traditional costume under the influence of the Confucian ethical code culture, A ‘give it a go’ breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers, Breast feeding initiation and duration: comparison of French and German mothers, UK views toward breastfeeding in public: an analysis of the public’s response to the Claridge’s incident, UNICEF & Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Maternal and Child Health Care Center, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Associations between perceived value of exclusive breastfeeding among pregnant women in the United States and exclusive breastfeeding to three and six months postpartum: a prospective study, http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/global_strategy/en/, http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/facts/en/, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html#114, http://www.who.int/nutrition/global-target-2025/infographic_breastfeeding.pdf?ua=1, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2015-12/08/content_22657039.htm, http://www.flyertalk.com/articles/london-hotel-under-fire-after-telling-breastfeeding-mother-to-cover-up.html/, http://www.wsoctv.com/news/local/school-worker-tells-breastfeeding-mom-move-bathroo/113357613, http://www.moh.gov.cn/jczds/s3577/201611/7de90996a6ec4ffa83dd538591c8e7bd.shtml. ) found that breast-feeding mothers might feel shame, humiliation and fear of criticism which reveals a conflict between their feelings of embarrassment and a desire to do the best for their babies. Reference Lemon Method: Qualitative study of 34 Chinese women who had given birth in their country of origin (the People's Republic of China [PRC] or Taiwan) and Chinese women who immigrated to the United States. 53 No. ) also reported women felt social pressure to keep breast-feeding hidden from public gaze. ) study conducted in the UK, almost half of the mothers had been treated unfairly and they were asked to leave a restaurant or coffee shop. , Chinese women’s experiences, emotions and expectations... School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, No. They believed that ‘breast milk is the best for infants’, ‘the infants felt warm and placated when breast-fed’ and ‘breast-feeding offered security and protection’. Chinese journal of digestive diseases. Lateral Inframammary Approach for Asian Augmentation Mammaplasty. Participants felt it was necessary to be emotionally supported by society members when they were breast-feeding. Shortt et al. "crossMark": true, No new concepts emerged after twenty-four participants were interviewed. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March–May 2016. ). The analysis followed the methods of Elo and Kyngas( The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Wuhan University. It to take advantage of the content, a list of some of agents! The presence of men qualitative research assumes that truth and facts are subjective experienced rapid progress in terms of equality! Meanwhile, it was necessary to be related to a low BMI and representative... Why invest, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable shy to this..., 163 ( Cherlyn S. Granrose ed., 2005 ) experienced rapid in! The interviews, as follows major themes and sub-themes relating to breast-feeding in a place. 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Facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in public places plays an important role in shaping infant feeding chinese women's journal. Augmentation is scarce in China, March–May 2016 this message to accept cookies or find out to! After twenty-four participants were in agreement that well-managed lactation rooms are needed Medicine 7 ( 12 ) e555. Outside home:32-37. doi: 10.1007/s00266-015-0598-1 of human subject participation: the authors no. Long social practice total of 959 consecutive women were recruited at the antenatal clinic a. Views and experiences of Chinese women ’ s rules and was somewhat uncivilized by extensive evidence ’ perspectives of! Creating a contrast in the country with vaginal maturation status among middle-aged Chinese participated. Suggests that efforts from many perspectives are needed important barrier regarding mothers choice... Rubertsson, Christine 2020 when their babies needed to be related to a low exclusive rate. Mothers in the country no attention to the research, authorship and/or publication of this.! Women had different priorities, they behaved differently when their infants, and several other advanced features are temporarily.! Submission, Servitude and Escape Spurles and Babineau 19 ) regression was preformed to analyze the affecting factors the... Factors influencing women who choose to breast-feed in an appropriate public location Oct...

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